He wrote a series on "Anti-Slavery in the United States" for the Daily News, though his series was discontinued by the editors after four articles in May 1846. [30] The first issue of the journal included the first appearance of "The Tell-Tale Heart" by Edgar Allan Poe. [41] To pay for the trip, Lowell sold land around Elmwood, intending to sell off further acres of the estate over time to supplement his income, ultimately selling off 25 of the original 30 acres (120,000 m2). He also edited volumes with biographical sketches for a series on British Poets. "[127] Fellow Fireside Poet John Greenleaf Whittier praised Lowell by writing two poems in his honor and calling him "our new Theocritus" and "one of the strongest and manliest of our writers–a republican poet who dares to speak brave words of unpopular truth". The year 1848 also saw the publication of Lowell’s two other most important pieces of writing: The Vision of Sir Launfal, an enormously popular long poem extolling the brotherhood of man; and A Fable for Critics, a witty and rollicking verse evaluation of contemporary American authors. By the time James Russell Lowell was born, the … He gained notoriety in 1848 with the publication of A Fable for Critics, a book-length poem satirizing contemporary critics and poets. [35] In it, he took good-natured jabs at his contemporary poets and critics—but not all the subjects were pleased. [131] Ralph Waldo Emerson noted that, though Lowell had significant technical skill, his poetry "rather expresses his wish, his ambition, than the uncontrollable interior impulse which is the authentic mark of a new poem ... and which is felt in the pervading tone, rather than in brilliant parts or lines. [55] Lowell, who had never spoken in public before, was praised for these lectures. [31] Lowell was treated for an eye disease in New York shortly after the first issue, and in his absence Carter did a poor job of managing the journal. [99] Lowell spent part of the 1880s delivering various speeches,[100] and his last published works were mostly collections of essays, including Political Essays, and a collection of his poems Heartsease and Rue in 1888. "[123], Lowell was also involved in other reform movements. Beauty Future Dreams Believe. [38] The book presented three main characters, each representing different aspects of American life and using authentic American dialects in their dialogue. 1. [17] They were finally married on December 26, 1844,[18] shortly after the groom published Conversations on the Old Poets, a collection of his previously published essays. [28] He was inspired to new efforts towards self-support and joined with his friend Robert Carter in founding the literary journal The Pioneer. [14] While studying law, however, he contributed poems and prose articles to various magazines. [66] Lowell wrote, "My second marriage was the wisest act of my life, & as long as I am sure of it, I can afford to wait till my friends agree with me. James Russell Lowell (; February 22, 1819 – August 12, 1891) was an American Romantic poet, critic, editor, and diplomat.He is associated with the Fireside Poets, a group of New England writers who were among the first American poets who rivaled the popularity of British poets. They had four children, though only one (Mabel, born 1847) survived past infancy. He attempted to emulate the true Yankee accent in the dialogue of his characters, particularly in The Biglow Papers. [13] During his stay in Concord, he became friends with Ralph Waldo Emerson and got to know the other Transcendentalists. M.L. Lowell". That year, he served as a delegate to the Republican National Convention in Cincinnati, Ohio, speaking on behalf of presidential candidate Rutherford B. "[20] William Wetmore Story noted the journal's higher taste, writing that "it took some stand & appealled to a higher intellectual Standard than our puerile milk or watery namby-pamby Mags with which we are overrun". [102], In the last few months of his life, Lowell struggled with gout, sciatica in his left leg, and chronic nausea; by the summer of 1891, doctors believed that Lowell had cancer in his kidneys, liver, and lungs. [33] In the spring of 1848, he formed a connection with the National Anti-Slavery Standard of New York, agreeing to contribute weekly either a poem or a prose article. [109] He subscribed to the common nineteenth-century belief that the poet was a prophet but went further, linking religion, nature, and poetry, as well as social reform. "[119] After his marriage, Lowell at first did not share his wife's enthusiasm for the cause, but he was eventually pulled in. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). He spent his last years in Cambridge in the same estate where he was born, and died there in 1891. He is associated with the Fireside Poets, a group of New England writers who were among the first American poets who rivaled the […] His essays such as “E Pluribus Unum” and “Washers of the Shroud” (1862) also reflect his thought at this time. [1] He was a member of the eighth generation of the Lowell family,[2] the descendants of Percival Lowle who settled in Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1639. Instead, his poem was printed and made available thanks to subscriptions paid by his classmates. James Russell Lowell; Arguments and Controversy. JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (East Highland Park School) HABS No. M.L. He was later appointed ambassador to the Court of St. James's. [20] Lowell himself believed that she was made up "half of earth and more than half of Heaven". Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Mishaps are like knives, that either serve us or cut us, as we grasp them by the blade or the handle. Lowell won great popularity in England’s literary and political circles and served as president of the Wordsworth Society, succeeding Matthew Arnold. [103] That year, Lowell gave an address at the centenary of George Washington's inauguration. Under the Willows and Other Poems was released in 1869,[71] though Lowell originally wanted to title it The Voyage to the Vinland and Other Poems. [88] Lowell was well-prepared for his political role, having been trained in law, as well as being able to read in multiple languages. Buried Under Hornbeam Trees In The Spot He Had Himself Selected And Near The Grave Of Longfellow At Mount Auburn", The Complete Writings of James Russell Lowell, James Russell Lowell Miscellaneous Correspondence (MS Am 1191), Ambassadors of the United States of America to the Court of St. James's, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=James_Russell_Lowell&oldid=999541411, Ambassadors of the United States to Spain, Ambassadors of the United States to the United Kingdom, Hall of Fame for Great Americans inductees, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Appleton's Cyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Dictionary of American Biography, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 18:33. Even more effective in this regard were his Biglow Papers, which he began to serialize June 17, 1846, and the first series of which were collected in book form in 1848. [21] James had previously expressed antislavery sentiments, but Maria urged him towards more active expression and involvement. [29] He agreed with his neighbor Longfellow that "whoever is most universal, is also most national". [120] The couple often gave money to fugitive slaves, even when their own financial situation was not strong, especially if they were asked to free a spouse or child. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. He traveled to Europe before officially assuming his teaching duties in 1856, and married Frances Dunlap shortly thereafter in 1857. Quotations by James Russell Lowell, American Poet, Born February 22, 1819. He is associated with the Fireside Poets, a group of New England writers who were among the first American poets who rivaled the popularity of British poets. "[126] Poet Walt Whitman said: "Lowell was not a grower—he was a builder. Her death left Lowell depressed and reclusive for six months, despite the birth of his son Walter by the end of the year. not such as lulls to sleep, But sword on thigh and brow with purpose knit! Lowell attended Harvard College beginning at age 15 in 1834, though he was not a good student and often got into trouble. [29] Lowell wrote that it would "furnish the intelligent and reflecting portion of the Reading Public with a rational substitute for the enormous quantity of thrice-diluted trash, in the shape of namby-pamby love tales and sketches, which is monthly poured out to them by many of our popular Magazines. [138], American poet, critic, editor, and diplomat. Emerson referred to his poem's "high thought & sentiment" and James Freeman Clarke noted its "grandeur of tone". [116], Lowell was an abolitionist, but his opinions wavered concerning African-Americans. Instead, he called for a natural literature, regardless of country, caste, or race, and warned against provincialism which might "put farther off the hope of one great brotherhood". M.L. In May 1877, President Hayes, an admirer of The Biglow Papers, sent William Dean Howells to Lowell with a handwritten note proffering an ambassadorship to either Austria or Russia; Lowell declined, but noted his interest in Spanish literature. 1. [56] The job description was changing after Longfellow; instead of teaching languages directly, Lowell would supervise the department and deliver two lecture courses per year on topics of his own choosing. [34], A Fable for Critics was one of Lowell's most popular works, published anonymously in 1848. Even Deity is subjected to chemical tests.-James Russell Lowell. James Russell Lowell (22 February 1819 – 12 August 1891) was an American Romantic poet, critic, satirist, writer, diplomat, and abolitionist. [108] Evert Augustus Duyckinck and others welcomed Lowell as part of Young America, a New York-based movement. Primarily, however, Lowell spent his time abroad studying languages, particularly German, which he found difficult. He advocated suffrage for blacks, yet he noted that their ability to vote could be troublesome. However, his commitment to the anti-slavery cause wavered over the years, as did his opinion on African-Americans. James Russell Lowell, poet, essayist, diplomatist, and scholar, was born at Cambridge, Massachusetts, on February 22, 1819, the son of a Unitarian minister. [118] Even before his marriage to abolitionist Maria White, Lowell wrote: "The abolitionists are the only ones with whom I sympathize of the present extant parties. He built poems: he didn't put in the seed, and water the seed, and send down his sun—letting the rest take care of itself: he measured his poems—kept them within formula. "[36] Lowell offered his New York friend Charles Frederick Briggs all the profits from the book's success (which proved relatively small), despite his own financial needs. [137] The poem was also the source of the hymn Once to Every Man and Nation. He attended William Wells School and Harvard University, where he graduated with a degree in law. A scholar of linguistics, Lowell was one of the founders of the American Dialect Society. Omissions? He ultimately enrolled at Harvard Law School in 1840 and was admitted to the bar two years later. Edgar Allan Poe was referred to as part genius and "two-fifths sheer fudge"; he reviewed the work in the Southern Literary Messenger and called it "'loose'—ill-conceived and feebly executed, as well in detail as in general ... we confess some surprise at his putting forth so unpolished a performance. [25] In the spring of 1845, the Lowells returned to Cambridge to make their home at Elmwood. [63], Lowell had intended never to remarry after the death of his wife Maria White. They think them unwholesome unless they are swallowed, stones and all. In 1844 he was married to the gifted poet Maria White, who had inspired his poems in A Year’s Life (1841) and who would help him channel his energies into fruitful directions. Abolitionist Samuel Joseph May accused him of trying to quit the movement because of his association with Harvard and the Boston Brahmin culture: "Having got into the smooth, dignified, self-complacent, and change-hating society of the college and its Boston circles, Lowell has gone over to the world, and to 'respectability'. James Russell Lowell photographed by Mathew Brady circa 1855-1865 In a society like ours, where every man may transmute his private thought into history and destiny by dropping it into the ballot-box, a peculiar responsibility rests upon the individual. [53] Lowell chose to speak on "The English Poets", telling his friend Briggs that he would take revenge on dead poets "for the injuries received by one whom the public won't allow among the living". "[27] Lowell depicted Southerners very unfavorably in his second collection of The Biglow Papers but, by 1865, admitted that Southerners were "guilty only of weakness" and, by 1868, said that he sympathized with Southerners and their viewpoint on slavery. [5] He was the youngest of six children; his siblings were Charles, Rebecca, Mary, William, and Robert. Lowell believed that the poet played an important role as a prophet and critic of society. [74], Shortly after Lincoln's assassination, Lowell was asked to present a poem at Harvard in memory of graduates killed in the war. He was a member of the eighth generation of the Lowell family, the descendants of Percival Lowle who settled in Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1639. [8] In his sophomore year, he was absent from required chapel attendance 14 times and from classes 56 times. "[116] Lowell's satires and use of dialect were an inspiration for writers like Mark Twain, William Dean Howells, H. L. Mencken, and Ring Lardner. [125], In 1849, Lowell said of himself, "I am the first poet who has endeavored to express the American Idea, and I shall be popular by and by. Early in his career, James Russell Lowell's writing was influenced by Swedenborgianism, a Spiritualism-infused form of Christianity founded by Emanuel Swedenborg, causing Frances Longfellow (wife of the poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow) to mention that "he has been long in the habit of seeing spirits". The couple had several children, though only one survived past childhood. He once confided to a friend that he held a cocked pistol to his forehead and considered killing himself at the age of 20. Besides Lowell, the main figures from this group were Longfellow, Holmes, John Greenleaf Whittier, and William Cullen Bryant. James Russell Lowell Quotes. [98] His last few years he traveled back to England periodically[101] and when he returned to the United States in the fall of 1889, he moved back to Elmwood[102] with Mabel, while her husband worked for clients in New York and New Jersey. From 1845 to 1850 he wrote about 50 antislavery articles for periodicals. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. James Russell Lowell was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on February 22, 1819, the son of the Reverend Charles Lowell and Harriet Spence. While overseas, he received an honorary Doctorate of Law from the University of Oxford and another from Cambridge University. [94] Lowell was popular enough that he was offered a professorship at Oxford after his recall by President Grover Cleveland, though the offer was declined. If it be needful to the successful prosecution of the war, shall anyone oppose it? The Use of Nature and Emotion in Romantic Literature: Readings from Lowell… In using this vernacular, Lowell intended to get closer to the common man's experience and was rebelling against more formal and, as he thought, unnatural representations of Americans in literature. James Russell Lowell was born February 22, 1819. Yellin, Jean Fagan. "[77] Despite his personal assessment, friends and other poets sent many letters to Lowell congratulating him. [60] It was in 1876 that Lowell first stepped into the field of politics. [98] By this time, most of his friends were dead, including Quincy, Longfellow, Dana, and Emerson, leaving him depressed and contemplating suicide again. [48] He again cut himself off from others, becoming reclusive at Elmwood, and his private diaries from this time period are riddled with the initials of his wife. I begin to feel more like my old self than I have these ten years. The proof of poetry is, in my mind, that it reduces to the essence of a single line the vague philosophy which is floating in all men's minds, and so render it portable and useful, and ready to the hand ... At least, no poem ever makes me respect its author which does not in some way convey a truth of philosophy.[111]. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, James Russell Lowell School (Philadelphia), Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, "The Last Tribute Paid. He is associated with the Fireside Poets, a group of New England writers who were among the first American poets that rivaled the popularity of British poets. Updates? [114] For example, Lowell's character Hosea Biglow says in verse: Ef you take a sword an' dror it, His friend Edward Everett Hale denied these allegations. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/James-Russell-Lowell, Turner Classic Movies - Biography of Yasujiro Ozu, Poetry Foundation - Biography of James Russell Lowell, The Walden Woods Project - James Russell Lowell, American Studies at The University of Virginia - Biography of James Russell Lowell, James Russell Lowell - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this James Russell Lowell study guide. Intriguing heroes are plenty, villains, not so many. Lowell himself was generally a pacifist. [61] He summed up his method: "True scholarship consists in knowing not what things exists, but what they mean; it is not memory but judgment. Analysis is carried into everything. [12], Lowell did not know what vocation to choose after graduating, and he vacillated among business, the ministry, medicine, and law. [6] Lowell's mother built in him an appreciation for literature at an early age, especially in poetry, ballads, and tales from her native Orkney. [104] He died on August 12, 1891, at Elmwood. These writers usually used conventional forms and meters in their poetry, making them suitable for families entertaining at their fireside. They returned to the United States in the summer of 1874. Here, a fictional version of Lowell says he does not believe that women will ever be equal to men in the arts and "the two sexes cannot be ranked counterparts". Read James Russell Lowell biography. [76] Lowell had high hopes for his performance but was overshadowed by the other notables presenting works that day, including Ralph Waldo Emerson and Oliver Wendell Holmes. [49] On March 10, 1854, for example, he wrote: "Dark without & within. Maria's father Abijah White, a wealthy merchant from Watertown, insisted that their wedding be postponed until Lowell had gainful employment. The same year, he published The Biglow Papers, which increased his fame. Lowell considered joining the "Anti-Wine" club at Harvard, and he became a teetotaler during the early years of his first marriage. View the list Pray as though everything depended on God. [83], Lowell resigned from his Harvard professorship in 1874, though he was persuaded to continue teaching through 1877. He was a highly influential man of letters in his day, but his reputation declined in the 20th century. He wrote his finest works before he was 30 years old, however, and most of his subsequent writings lack vitality. The letter from James Russell Lowell Elementary School, at 3320 W. Hirsch St. in the Humboldt Park neighborhood, reads: “Dear Teacher/Staff Welcome Back (sic) to Lowell School. Genre/Form: Biographies Biography: Additional Physical Format: Online version: Scudder, Horace Elisha, 1838-1902. After the American Civil War he expressed his devotion to the Union cause in four memorial odes, the best of which is “Ode Recited at the Harvard Commemoration” (1865). Facebook gives people the power to share … [87] The Spanish media referred to him as "José Bighlow". Barzallai Frost because of his neglect of his studies. [4] By the time that James was born, the family owned a large estate in Cambridge called Elmwood. Was made up `` half of earth and more than half of and... On February 19, 1885, while still in England ’ s literary and circles! Estate in Cambridge called Elmwood especially concerned about his fanaticism for temperance, worrying that Lowell would him. Died there in 1891 collection of Poetry in 1841 and married Frances Dunlap, until January 1861 to chemical Russell! 83 ], his second wife, Frances, died on August 12, 1891, at Elmwood at.! 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