London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1975); and Francis D. Klingender, “Content and Form in Art,” in Art in Theory, 1900-2000, ed. 35. They, too, can obtain general significance only through a profound reflection of the particular. Structures and circuits begin to appear, surfacing a place for gathering and conjuring. In terms of art, line is considered to be a moving dot. Klingender & Alsop dissolved their partnership in 1920 as a result of Alsop’s ill health, and Klingender formed a new partnership with R B Hamilton. Francis Klingender: ′Content and Form in Art′ 1935. As Francis Klingender states in . Realism as Critique. However, most typically, form is defined by a combination of these factors, as is the case in this print by Max Ernst. Yet precisely in so far as he did accept this mission he all but destroyed his poetic inspiration. Line can control an viewer's eye. For in art the particular becomes the general, the general reveals itself in the particular, and it is the unity of the particular and the general, expressed in the unity of content and form, which makes art an inexhaustible source of significant experience. The first systematic account of Fry’s attitude to these questions is the important ‘Essay in Aesthetics’ of 1909. Klingender "Content and Form in Art" (437-9). ‘In real life all happenings are true and correct, there are no oversights, none of that one-sided narrowness of vision which attaches to all human works. Form may also be defined by change in texture, even when hue and value remain essentially consistent. Francis Donald Klingender (1907 – 9 July 1955) was a Marxist art historian and exponent of Kunstsoziologie whose uncompromising views meant that he never quite fitted into the British art … Moreover, in its early stages art for art’s sake was not incompatible with a critical attitude to contemporary society. On the one hand the poet is tempted and passionately desires to escape into the ‘God-like isolation’ of pure art, on the other hand he realizes that isolation will lead him to despair and death. It can indicate form as well as movement. But it is when he defines the specific manner in which art reproduces reality that Chernyshevski differs most radically from the assumptions on which Fry’s analysis, in common with all other idealist systems of aesthetics, are based. Stuart Davis and Clarence Weinstock: 'Abstract Painting in America', 'Contradictions in Abstractions' and 'A Medium of 2 Dimensions' 1935. Francis Klingender, Evelyn Antal, John P Harthan. The image that would result from such an attempt to distil only what is general from a multitude of living individuals, would be of the type which is only too familiar from hundreds of war memorials up and down the country. 37–84. It is by now a commonplace that individual and … It has an endless number of uses in the creation of art. "This pioneer investigation remains one of the most original and arresting accounts of the impact of the new industry and technology upon the landscape of England and the English mind. But when a person endowed with artistic gifts is intellectually stimulated by problems arising out of the observation of life, his work will consciously or unconsciously embody a tendency to pronounce some vital judgment on the phenomena which occupy his mind (and that of his contemporaries, for a thinking man hardly concerns himself with trifling matters of no interest to anyone but himself). The minds of such people are not very active and if a person of this type happens to be a poet or an artist, his work will have no significance beyond reproducing the particular aspects of life which he prefers. This mythical element is progressively destroyed by the advance of science which, consequently, results in a decline of art. In 1920 he added: ‘true art is becoming more and more esoteric and hidden, like an heretical sect – or rather like science in the middle ages’. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the ‘Great Exhibition of German Art' 1937. I conceived the form and the emotion which it conveyed as being inextricably bound together in the aesthetic whole.’ [1]. There have always been artists who have taken the opposite view of art and of its relation to reality. And it was here, where he ceased to be pontifical and gave free vent to his emotions, that Tennyson became the true mirror of an important aspect of his age. Dec. 31st, 2020. Klingender's father, Louis Henry Weston Klingender (1861-1950), a native of Liverpool, was a painter of animals, a subject which the younger Klingender would return to himself late in life. But an idea can never be fully realised in a particular thing and therefore art, which aims at ideal perfection, always contains an element of myth or illusion. Marxism and Modern Art: An approach to social realism by F. D. Klingender 1943. 11. Though brilliant and plausible, this argument will not bear examination. Marxism and Modern Art: An approach to social realism by F. D. Klingender 1943. While rejecting the escape into pure art in the name of morals, he made his art the handmaid of an even baser form of escape, the escape of insincerity. In this respect the images created by art resemble beautiful objects in nature. London : Paladin, 1972, ©1968 11. ‘To paint a face beautifully’ is quite distinct from ‘painting a beautiful face’. I mean the general intellectual and instinctive reaction to their surroundings of those men of any period whose lives rise to complete self-consciousness, their view of the universe as a whole and their conception of their relations to their kind.’ [8]. But he immediately points out: ‘Perfection of form (unity of idea and form) is not a characteristic of art in the aesthetic sense of the term “fine art” only. ‘Science and art (poetry) are textbooks for those who are beginning to study life. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art' 1935. But in reproducing life, the artist also, consciously or unconsciously, expresses his opinion of it, and it is by virtue of this that ‘art becomes a moral activity of man.’. ‘What matters in art is the contemplation of form’ and ‘in proportion as art gets purer, the number of people to whom it appeals gets less’, say the formalists. Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922–23. But he was rudely shaken out of his complacency in social matters by the events of 1914-18. This passage is particularly revealing, first, because it emphasizes the goal to which Fry’s aesthetic development was inevitably leading him – he himself admitted that any attempt he might make to explain ‘significant’ form would land him ‘in the depths of mysticism’ – and secondly because it illustrates his peculiar method of analysis. Form in relation to positive and negative space . Within the oldest art forms can be seen The quality which is most striking in The Palace of Art is its ambiguity. And it also means that the aesthetic value of a work of art must in some way be related to the effect it produces, not merely in its own time, but as long as it survives. The statement that it is the function of art to reproduce everything that interests man in life implies that the particular image created must be ‘of interest to man generally and not merely to the artist’. Chernyshevski’s conception of ‘life’ as the content of art is thus dynamic, dialectical, it is the struggle of life, life as it is in reality and not in blissful dreams. Grant Wood: from Revolt Against the City 1935. The idea is sounder and more interesting than Klingender's Freudian orthodoxy allows him to admit. These theories are not, however, the products of perverse reasoning – they merely reflect what has actually been happening in English art since about 1910. It’s horribly difficult to analyse out of all the complex feelings just this one peculiar feeling, but I think that in proportion as poetry becomes more intense the content is entirely remade by the form and has no separate value at all. To quote Fry’s own account, the discussion stimulated by the appearance of ‘post-impressionism’ revealed ‘that some artists who were peculiarly sensitive to the formal relations of works of art... had almost no sense of the emotions’ of life which he had supposed them to convey. Marxism and Modern Art: An approach to social realism by F. D. Klingender 1943. It freed the artist from complete subservience to a false morality and enabled him to preserve something, at least, of his integrity. Chernyshevski’s thesis is an attack on the aesthetic theory of philosophical idealism, especially its classical culmination in the work of Hegel and his follower F. T. Vischer. Of all the critics who have helped to mould our present standards of appreciation none can equal the influence of Roger Fry, the founder of British post-impressionism. In Animals in Art and Thought Francis Klingender discusses these various attitudes in a survey which ranges from prehistoric cave art to the later Middle Ages. Translating this example into more familiar terms we may ask: which are more significant, aesthetically and from every other point of view, Shakespeare’s plays or Lamb’s Tales from Shakespeare? André Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. Lest any Fabian should be crude enough to suspect that the lecturer was referring to ordinary human beings, when he spoke of ‘life’, he hastened to explain: ‘And here let me try to say what I mean by life as contrasted with art. (source: Nielsen Book Data) Summary I also conceived that the spectator in contemplating the form must inevitably travel in the opposite direction along the same road which the artist had taken, and himself feel the original emotion. To quote his own words: ‘Art, then, is an expression and a stimulus of the imaginative life, which is separated from actual life by the absence of responsive action. Andre Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. It would be false and unconvincing precisely because of its character as a lifeless abstraction. Louis Aragon: from Paris Peasant 1924. It follows that art, too, far from being superior to reality, can only be a pale reflection of it: ‘All that finds expression in science and art can be found in life in a more perfect and complete form, with all those vital details in which the true meaning of the matter usually lies and which are often not understood and even more often disregarded by science and art. On the one hand the poet is tempted and passionately desires to escape into the ‘God-like isolation’ of pure art, [16] on the other hand he realizes that isolation will lead him to despair and death. Realism as Critique: Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922-23. Their conception of good art and of its relation to life is thus on their own admission incompatible with the present need of reuniting art and the people. Laurie Taylor. “Larwill had a great eye and all the works in his collection are beautifully provenanced,” says Tim Klingender, the Sydney-based senior consultant of Australian art to Sotheby’s New York. ‘It would seem that the definitions “Beauty is life,” “Beautiful are all things in which we see life as, according to our conceptions, it should be,” “Beautiful is an object which expresses life or reminds us of it” give a satisfactory explanation of all the ways in which the feeling of beauty is roused in us.’ [18]. Unable to comprehend the causes of the collapse, he was glad to escape into what now appeared to him as a ‘revolutionary advance’ in art – i.e. I also admit that under certain conditions the rhythms of life and of art may coincide with great effect on both; but in the main the two rhythms are distinct, and as often as not play against each other. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art… But from about 1870 onwards, as the pressure increased, this critical attitude was more and more replaced by assumed indifference, the artist retreated into ever remoter realms of ‘purely’ aesthetic experience, and the further he retreated, the more rapidly did the sweets he coveted turn to ashes in his mouth. The haunting fear, the doubt that all was not as it appeared to be, the agony and the despair, which the Victorians tried to conceal under a mask of complacent decorum, break out with unsurpassed intensity in many of his poems. He might attempt to compose an ideal figure embodying courage, toughness, a weather-beaten appearance, all those general qualities, in short, which the experience of desert warfare has imprinted on each member of that veteran force. Wood This popular anthology of twentieth-century art theoretical texts has now been expanded to take account of new research, and to include significant contributions to art theory from the 1990s. Marxist art historian of British art; employed Kunstsoziologie in his writings. THE ART OF THE WANJINA. But whereas the Victorians tolerated a realistic attitude to Nature and society only if it was overlayed with sentimentality, as in Dickens or in the later work of George Cruikshank, the tradition of uncompromising realism continued to advance in nineteenth-century France and Russia. See F. D. Klingender, ‘Content and Form in Art’ in Herbert Read, F. D. Klingender, Eric Gill, A. L. Lloyd, Alick West, 5 on Revolutionary Art ... 1992), pp. Art in Theory, 1900–2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas Charles Harrison , Paul J. Art and Merchandise in Keith Haring’s Pop Shop ... 2020. Action implies moral responsibility. 11. Animals in Art and Thought to the End a/the Middle Ages: the wily stratagems of the fox, part hero, part villain, appealed to all classes of society. Stripped of its illusions, the ideal beauty depicted by art loses its power to console men for the imperfections of reality. Animals in art and thought. Frogmore, St. Albans: Paladin, 1975, reprinted, xv, 272pp., PAPERBACK, good used reading copy BUT black ink marks mostly in margins on about 19 pages towards start of book. For Klingender, they exist in a form of duality, open and closed, individual and collective. The aesthetic assumptions of realism were first systematically defined by N. G. Chernyshevski, a contemporary of Balzac and Daumier, Gogol, Aksakov and Shchedrin, whose thesis Life and Aesthetics was published in 1853. … ‘Everything that interests man in life’ includes the ugly, as well as the beautiful, the forces that frustrate and crush life, as well as those that support it, death as well as life. The idea is sounder and more interesting than Klingender's Freudian orthodoxy allows him to admit. But who would claim that science does not lead to responsive action or that it is ‘freed from the binding necessities of our actual existence’? Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art' 1935. In 1902 the family moved to Goslar in True, such conclusions and ideas are much less complete and universal than life. Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922-23. In order to fortify his own retreat he was now anxious to minimise what connection he had hitherto still assumed to exist between art and life. It will be necessary at a later stage to enquire whether this assumption is valid in so individual, so richly varied and so constantly changing a sphere as art. If this were true, there could be no art: what else is the work of art but the creative reproduction of the artist’s perception? But life does not trouble to explain its phenomena to us nor to draw conclusions as men do in the works of science and art. To Fry, as to most other intellectuals of his generation, the first world war came as a shattering bolt from the blue. Although, in his view, beauty is that which evokes life and although art reproduces what interests man in life, it by no means follows that art reproduces only what is beautiful in nature. (Francis Donald). Angelo Lo Conte. Only the aesthetes still assert that art is superior to life and to reality.’, Chernyshevski sums up by stating that it is the essential function of art ‘to reproduce everything that interests man in life’. I admit, of course, that it is always conditioned more or less by economic changes, but these are rather conditions of its existence at all than directive influences. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art' 1935. Tennyson became the Laureate of the Victorians because, on the surface at least, he spurned the blandishments of art for art’s sake and accepted the ‘mission’ of teaching and consoling his fellow men. Genre/Form: History: Additional Physical Format: Online version: Klingender, F.D. But to deny that the general is more significant than the particular does not imply the reverse proposition that the particular as such is what matters in art. Life as a teacher, as a channel of knowledge, is more full and accurate, even more artistic than all the works of all the scientists and poets. Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922-23. And in so far as he communicates the image of his perception to his fellow men, the artist is morally responsible for it. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the ′Great Exhibition of German Art′ 1937. Stuart Davis and Clarence Weinstock: 'Abstract Painting in America', 'Contradictions in Abstractions' and 'A Medium of 2 Dimensions' 1935. Night Workers. Realism as Critique. Conscious that works of art inspire different kinds of emotion, he attempts, by introspection, to isolate one specific emotion which is common to all these various compounds, on the assumption that this ‘constant’ factor would reveal the ‘substance’, the irreducible atom, so to speak, of aesthetic experience. listeners cannot directly identify. (Francis Donald). To rid himself of that ‘obsession’ was the main preoccupation of his later thought. Nor can we derive much help from the conception of art which the Victorians admired in Tennyson: It is the artist’s mission to console his fellow men, ‘even as the calm, gentle, self-reliant physician inspires the fevered sufferer’ by ‘throwing a divine grace over the happier emotions’; he should ‘transport them from the cankering cares of daily life, the perplexities and confusion of their philosophies, the weariness of their haunting thoughts, to some entirely new field of existence, to some place of rest, some “clear walled city by the sea” where they can draw a serene air undimmed by the clouds and smoke which infest their ordinary existence.’ [17] We may agree with the formalists that the artist who makes his work an opium for the people is a traitor to his calling. London, Routledge and K. Paul, 1971 Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the 'Great Exhibition of German Art' 1937. 11. What did he teach concerning the nature of art and its relation to life? 1935. Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922-23. It is by now a commonplace that individual and … Revised and extended edition, edited and revised by Arthur Elton. I admit that there is also a queer hybrid art of sense and illustration, but it can only arouse particular and definitely conditioned emotions, whereas the emotions of music and pure painting and poetry when it approaches purity are really free abstract and universal.’ [2]. It is therefore necessary to amplify the previous definition of the function of form in art – the complete expression of the artist’s aim – by stating: to paint, model, write, compose, act, film, etc., beautifully means so to express the particular that it attains general significance. But it is easy to exaggerate the difference between these two conceptions of art. But, as Chernyshevski points out, ‘alcohol is not wine’. According to this, the purpose of art is 'de-familiarization'. Art in Theory, 1900–2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas Charles Harrison , Paul J. Posted on May 17, 2017 in Faculty Picks. André Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. It can also indicate value and a light source in drawing. 11. Dec. 31st, 2020. Life, reality in general, is more rich and varied, fuller and more significant than any figment of the imagination. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the 'Great Exhibition of German Art' 1937. Both imply an ideal realm of ‘beauty’ or ‘pure form’ which is superior to the ordinary life of men. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art' 1935. what is politics? Compared with the degradation of art, when it served as the mouthpiece of Victorian cant, the doctrine of art for art’s sake was a great step forward. to form divorced and abstracted from that which it forms, Fry excluded everything which art was ever intended to convey to mankind. Our specialist interests are Australian Indigenous Art, Australian Art, Oceanic Art, Modern and Contemporary Art. The objects become entry points to knowledge and imagining, creating an in-between space to slip in and out of, with the objects acting as a sort of portal. His final views are expressed in a letter which he wrote in 1924 to the Poet Laureate Robert Bridges: ‘I very early became convinced that our emotions before works of art were of many kinds and that we failed as a rule to distinguish the nature of the mixture and I set to work by introspection to discover what the different elements of these compound emotions might be and to try to get at the most constant, unchanging, and therefore I suppose fundamental emotion. Art is thus a striking and at the same time a peculiarly revealing illustration of the key conception of dialectics, the unity of opposites. Chernyshevski anticipated Fry in pointing out that beauty in nature is entirely distinct from the aesthetic element in art. Indeed, moral behaviour not infrequently implies the suppression of inherited responses: to act morally, when faced by a bull, I must curb my impulse of self-preservation sufficiently to help my less agile companion. It is one of the main points of the Essay in Aesthetics that art has nothing whatever to do with morals. For Klingender, they exist in a form of duality, open and closed, individual and collective. Science does not claim to be anything else, nor do the poets in their cursory remarks about the essence of their work. What is more fundamental and hence more significant, Chernyshevski asks, Koramasin’s History of Russia or the Children’s History of Russia which a writer named Tappen abstracted from that work? However, most typically, form is defined by a combination of these factors, as is the case in this print by Max Ernst. Wood This popular anthology of twentieth-century art theoretical texts has now been expanded to take account of new research, and to include significant contributions to art theory from the 1990s. … Consequently, when Fry restated his theory in 1920 (essay ‘Retrospect’ in Vision and Design), he discarded the emotions of life and confined aesthetic feeling to what Clive Bell had meanwhile called ‘significant form’. In other words, the interval of reflection which Fry claims as the distinguishing feature of artistic perception, is just as essential in any behaviour that can be subjected to a moral test. Suppose that a painter, sculptor, writer or film director sets out to create a striking and significant image of, say, the soldier of the 8th Army. Those capable of doing so are, he admits, but few: ‘in proportion as art becomes purer, the number of people to whom it appeals gets less’, [9] he had already told the Fabians in 1917. It is not difficult to explain this seeming paradox; for if one examines Tennyson’s work one soon discovers that the ‘others’ with whom he returned to his Palace were neither the people at large, nor the ‘few elect’, but the Victorian middle class. In the view of these philosophers what appears beautiful to man is that which he accepts as the complete realisation of a given idea. … As Shklovsky wrote elsewhere: 'A new form appears not in order to express a new content, but in order to replace an old form, which has already lost its artistic value.' Roger Fry’s Formalism. Realism as Critique: Leon Trotsky: from Literature and. Form may also be defined by change in texture, even when hue and value remain essentially consistent. Hence his attempt, after say 1912, to disentangle the ‘purely aesthetic’ elements from their accompanying ‘accessories’ was in fact an attempt to explain the indifference of certain artists to the problems of life and the growing isolation of art from all other spheres of existence. Marxism and Modern Art: An approach to social realism by F. D. Klingender 1943. Realism as Critique. His mother, also British, was Florence Hoette (Klingender) (d. 1944). A genuine front-line newsreel sequence far surpasses even the best war film in dramatic power and intensity. the tame still-lives and the harmless holiday scenes of the post-impressionists (not, it is significant to note, what was really new in English art, the war paintings of 1914-18). But it does mean that society cannot be indifferent whether a given work of art inspires by its profound insight, whether it stirs to action, whether it soothes and refreshes, or whether, on the other hand, it opiates and disrupts. Francis Klingender: ‘Content and Form in Art' 1935. Morality appreciates emotion by the standard of resultant action, art appreciates emotion in and for itself.’ [4]. André Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. It is scarcely necessary to point out that this profound idea is utterly incompatible with the formalism of Roger Fry. Structures and circuits begin to appear, surfacing a place for gathering and conjuring. Realism as Critique. The statement ‘this is beautifully painted’ means that the artist has succeeded in expressing what he intended to convey. Artistic contemplation, being removed from action, is thereby released from all moral ties. Located in Sydney, Tim Klingender Fine Art is an international business providing a range of services to the primary and secondary art markets. To achieve this he should study the actual soldiers of the 8th Army at their daily work; he should observe just how the various qualities which have made that Army what it is are reflected in the behaviour and bearing of particular individuals, how they modify and are in turn modified by the idiosyncrasies of those individuals; and the more faithfully he succeeds in recreating particular, living characters with all their idiosyncrasies – say the London busman who is now driving a tank or the Australian gunner – the more real and therefore also the more typical and universally significant his image will be felt to be. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art' 1935. André Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. ‘I want to find out what the function of content is,’ he wrote in 1913 to G. L. Dickinson, ‘and am developing a theory... that it is merely directive of form and that all the essential aesthetic quality has to do with pure form. 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