The Soviets are undoubtedly going to make it their business to discover as many mass graves as possible and then blame it on us". [22] It is uncertain how many members of the commission were misled by the falsified reports and evidence, and how many actually suspected the truth. The Katyn massacre was beneficial to Nazi Germany, which used it to discredit the Soviet Union. The massacre was initiated in NKVD chief Lavrentiy Beria's proposal to Stalin to execute all captive members of the Polish officer corps, approved by the Soviet Politburo led by Joseph Stalin. In the late 1970s, democracy groups like the Workers' Defence Committee and the Flying University defied the censorship and discussed the massacre, in the face of arrests, beatings, detentions, and ostracism. The Katyn Forest Massacre Polish POWs Killed by Stalin and the Soviets in 1940 - Documents about the Controversy, Madden Committee Report, Coverup of Soviet Involvement, Nazi Accusations by Department of Defense,U. [65], In the United States a similar line was taken, notwithstanding two official intelligence reports into the Katyn massacre that contradicted the official position. This committee unanimously recommends that the House of Representatives approve the committee’s findings and adopt a resolution: 1. [b], In 1951 and 1952, with the Korean War as a background, a congressional investigation chaired by Rep. Ray Madden and known as the Madden Committee investigated the Katyn massacre. House. We shall be able to live on it for a couple of weeks". [1] According to Soviet documents declassified in 1990, 21,857 Polish internees and prisoners were executed after 3 April 1940: 14,552 prisoners of war (most or all of them from the three camps) and 7,305 prisoners in western parts of the Byelorussian and Ukrainian SSRs. With Andrzej Chyra, Maja Ostaszewska, Artur Zmijewski, Danuta Stenka. Although a 1952 U.S. congressional inquiry concluded that the Soviet Union had been responsible for the massacre, Soviet leaders insisted for decades that the Polish officers found at Katyn had been killed by the invading Germans in 1941. Polish language Katyn Forest Massacre lesson from the Association of Polish Teachers Abroad. Later, in 1945, Van Vliet submitted a report concluding the Soviets were responsible for the massacre. [45] After extensive preparation, on 13 April, Reichssender Berlin broadcast to the world that German military forces in the Katyn forest near Smolensk had uncovered a ditch that was "28 metres long and 16 metres wide [92 ft by 52 ft], in which the bodies of 3,000 Polish officers were piled up in 12 layers". [51] The Soviet Union also started a campaign to get the Western Allies to recognize the pro-Soviet government-in-exile of the Union of Polish Patriots led by Wanda Wasilewska. As of 2012[update],[98] 35 out of 183 volumes of files remain classified. For this he was spared execution and was given 15 years of hard labor. 1 History; 2 Wartime effects of Germany revealing the Katyn massacre; 3 Katyn at the Nuremberg trials; 4 See also; 5 External links. [90] In March 2005 the Prosecutor-General's Office of the Russian Federation concluded a decade-long investigation of the massacre. Jeffery tried to inform the British government about the Katyn massacre, but was as a result released from the Army. During the interrogation, Soprunenko defended himself by denying his own signature. The Katyn massacre is a major element in many works of film, literature and the fine arts. [14][15] Of the group of 12,000 Poles sent to Dalstroy camp (near Kolyma) in 1940–1941, mostly POWs, only 583 men survived; they were released in 1942 to join the Polish Armed Forces in the East. Katyn Massacre, mass execution of Polish military officers by the Soviet Union during World War II. The Polish general Władysław Anders began organizing this army, and soon he requested information about the missing Polish officers. Of the 183 volumes of files gathered during the Russian investigation, 116 were declared to contain state secrets and were classified. [111] The visit took place on 7 April 2010, when Tusk and Putin together commemorated the 70th anniversary of the massacre. [3] Stalin severed diplomatic relations with the London-based Polish government-in-exile when it asked for an investigation by the International Committee of the Red Cross. They claimed the Polish prisoners of war had been engaged in construction work west of Smolensk, and consequently were captured and executed by invading German units in August 1941. [50] In April 1943, the Polish government-in-exile led by Sikorski insisted on bringing the matter to the negotiation table with the Soviets and on opening an investigation by the International Red Cross. ), Bronisław Bohatyrewicz (ret. The Katyn massacre, also known as the Katyn Forest Massacre, was a mass execution of Polish citizens by the order of Soviet authorities in 1940. [72][better source needed] At the trials in 1946, Soviet General Roman Rudenko raised the indictment, stating "one of the most important criminal acts for which the major war criminals are responsible was the mass execution of Polish prisoners of war shot in the Katyn forest near Smolensk by the German fascist invaders",[73] but failed to make the case and the U.S. and British judges dismissed the charges. …of the discovery in the Katyn Forest of mass graves of more than 4,000 Polish officers who had been captured by the Red Army. The truth will make a path for itself. [76][77] The two names are similar or identical in many languages, and were often confused. 7. Katyn was a forbidden topic in postwar Poland. [63], At the beginning of 1944, Ron Jeffery, an agent of British and Polish intelligence in occupied Poland, eluded the Abwehr and travelled to London with a report from Poland to the British government. by Charles Scaliger September 11, 2012. [97], In the following years, 81 volumes of the case were declassified and transferred to the Polish government. The Katyn massacre was committed in 1940 by the Soviet NKVD and killed an estimated 22,000 Poles. This explanation was accepted without protest by successive Polish communist governments until the late 1980s, when the Soviet Union allowed a noncommunist coalition government to come to power in Poland. Jan Emil Skiwski was a collaborator. [22][54] The Burdenko Commission exhumed the bodies, rejected the 1943 German findings the Poles were shot by the Soviet army, assigned the guilt to the Nazis, and concluded all the shootings were done by German occupation forces in late 1941. [70], From 28 December 1945 to 4 January 1946, a Soviet military court in Leningrad tried seven Wehrmacht servicemen. [56], The growing Polish-Soviet tension was beginning to strain Western-Soviet relations at a time when the Poles' importance to the Allies, significant in the first years of the war, was beginning to fade, due to the entry into the conflict of the military and industrial giants, the Soviet Union and the United States. In his memoirs, he refers to the 1944 Soviet inquiry into the massacre, which found the Germans responsible, and adds, "belief seems an act of faith". He passed the reports to his superiors (sources vary on when exactly the Germans became aware of the graves—from "late 1942" to January–February 1943, and when the German top decision makers in Berlin received those reports [as early as 1 March or as late as 4 April]). Censorship in the Polish People's Republic was a massive undertaking and Katyn was specifically mentioned in the "Black Book of Censorship" used by the authorities to control the media and academia. The Katyn massacre was a series of mass executions of Polish nationals carried out by the People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) , the Soviet secret police, in April and May 1940.Originally, the term “Katyn massacre”, also known as the Katyn Forest massacre, referred to the massacre at Katyn Forest, which was discovered first and was the largest execution of this type. The prisoners assumed they would be released soon, but the interviews were in effect a selection process to determine who would live and who would die. [79] In 1981, Polish trade union Solidarity erected a memorial with the simple inscription "Katyn, 1940". [6] Despite these declarations of war, the two nations undertook minimal military activity during what became known as the Phoney War. The executions were usually performed with German-made .25 ACP Walther Model 2 pistols supplied by Moscow,[31] but Soviet-made 7.62×38mmR Nagant M1895 revolvers were also used. [66] Documents released by the National Archives and Records Administration in September 2012 revealed Stewart and Van Vliet sent coded messages to their American superiors indicating they saw proof that implicated the Soviets. In addition to muffling by the rough insulation in the execution cell, the pistol gunshots were masked by the operation of loud machines (perhaps fans) throughout the night. Official publication of the Polish government Agency of Combatants and Repressed", "Goetel, Skiwski, Mackiewicz. Copies of these volumes, each comprising about 250 pages, were packed in six boxes. The Katyn massacre[a] was a series of mass executions of nearly 22,000 Polish military officers and intelligentsia carried out by the Soviet Union, specifically the NKVD ("People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs", the Soviet secret police) in April and May 1940. [85], His remarks were given extensive coverage on Soviet television. Then on April 13, 1943, the Germans announced that they had discovered mass graves of Polish officers in the Katyn forest near Smolensk, in western Russian S.F.S.R. The victim was told to kneel in the middle of the cell, and was then approached from behind by the executioner and immediately shot in the back of the head or neck. Consequently, Britain and France, fulfilling the Anglo-Polish[5] and Franco-Polish treaties of alliance, declared war on Germany. Katyn is a symbol of the criminal policy of the Soviet system against the Polish nation. Nevertheless, every year on the day of Zaduszki, similar memorial crosses were erected at Powązki Cemetery and numerous other places in Poland, only to be dismantled by the police. It concluded that the Poles had been killed by the Soviet NKVD and recommended that the Soviets be tried before the International Court of Justice. S. Congress,Central Intelligence Agency … [103], In 2007, a case (Janowiec and Others v. Russia) was brought in front of the European Court of Human Rights, with the families of several victimes claiming that Russia violated the European Convention on Human Rights by withholding documents from the public. Jan Basamania.jpg 172 × 204; 12 KB. [92][93], On 22 March 2005, the Polish Sejm unanimously passed an act requesting the Russian archives to be declassified. [105] The plaintiffs filed an appeal but a 21 October 2013 ruling essentially reaffirmed the prior one, claiming that the matter is outside the court's competence, and only rebuking the Russian side for its failure to substantiate adequately why some critical information remained classified. The Katyn Massacre left a deep scar in Polish-Soviet relations during the remainder of the war and afterward. [59] Shortly afterward, however, on 24 April 1943, the British government successfully pressured the Poles to withdraw the request for a Red Cross investigation,[59] and Churchill assured the Soviets: "We shall certainly oppose vigorously any 'investigation' by the International Red Cross or any other body in any territory under German authority. The cover-up of the massacre by the Allies is a central plot point in Robert Harris's novel Enigma and the 2001 film of the same name. [33] Vasily Mikhailovich Blokhin, chief executioner for the NKVD is reported to have personally shot and killed 7,000 of the condemned, some as young as 18, from the Ostashkov camp at Kalinin prison, over 28 days in April 1940. [citation needed] The body was carried out through the opposite door and laid in one of the five or six waiting trucks, whereupon the next condemned was taken inside and subjected to the same treatment. The Katyn Forest, in the vicinity of the village, was the site of the Katyn massacre during World War II, in which thousands of captured Polish officers and other citizens were killed. [22][78], In Poland, the pro-Soviet authorities following the Soviet occupation after the war covered up the matter in accordance with the official Soviet propaganda line, deliberately censoring any sources that might provide information about the crime. [54] The Burdenko Commission's conclusions would be consistently cited by Soviet sources until the official admission of guilt by the Soviet government on 13 April 1990. 4. In retrospective review of records, both British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt were increasingly torn between their commitments to their Polish ally and the demands by Stalin and his diplomats. Several visitors scaled the fence of a nearby KGB compound and left burning candles on the grounds. The Katyn massacre is a major plot element in many works of fiction, for example, in the W.E.B. Thank u 0 0. [35] This procedure went on every night, except for the public May Day holiday. In November 2010, the Russian State Duma approved a declaration blaming Stalin and other Soviet officials for ordering the massacre. The Polish government-in-exile and the Soviet government signed the Sikorski–Mayski agreement, which announced the willingness of both to fight together against Nazi Germany and for a Polish army to be formed on Soviet territory. [95][107][108], In June 1998, Boris Yeltsin and Aleksander Kwaśniewski agreed to construct memorial complexes at Katyn and Mednoye, the two NKVD execution sites on Russian soil. ISAAC KAPPY EXPOSING THE TRUTH. Investigators identified the corpses as the Polish officers who had been interned at a Soviet prison camp near Smolensk and accused the Soviet authorities of having executed the prisoners in May 1940. [22] Having consulted with Elmer Davis, director of the United States Office of War Information, Roosevelt rejected the conclusion (officially), declared he was convinced of Nazi Germany's responsibility, and ordered that Earle's report be suppressed. [46] The Germans were so intent on proving the Soviets were behind the massacre they even included some Allied prisoners of war, among them writer Ferdynand Goetel, the Polish Home Army prisoner from Pawiak. Lieutenant Janina Lewandowska, daughter of Gen. Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki, was the only woman POW executed during the massacre at Katyn. His entry for 29 September 1943 reads: "Unfortunately we have had to give up Katyn. The Polish search for some 15,000 missing men had previously met with a Soviet profession of complete ignorance as to their fate. [1][12][21] In December, a wave of arrests resulted in the imprisonment of additional Polish officers. [22] They were taken to the Yukhnov camp or Pavlishtchev Bor and then to Gryazovets. Three lines of evidence were cited. [55] The journalists were less impressed and not convinced by the staged Soviet demonstration. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. [54][55] As none of the documents found on the dead had dates later than April 1940, the Soviet secret police planted false evidence to place the apparent time of the massacre in mid-1941, when the German military had controlled the area. In September of that year, the Russians also raised the issue of Soviet prisoner of war deaths in the camps for Russian prisoners and internees in Poland (1919–24). The film will recount the fate of some of the … During a personal meeting, Stalin assured him and Władysław Sikorski, the Polish Prime Minister, all the Poles were freed, and not all could be accounted because the Soviets "lost track" of them in Manchuria. Some were freed or escaped quickly, but 125,000 were imprisoned in camps run by the NKVD. [9][12], Soviet repressions of Polish citizens occurred as well over this period. Media in category "Victims of Katyn massacre by name" The following 31 files are in this category, out of 31 total. [43] The discovery was not seen as important, as nobody thought the discovered grave could contain so many victims. [9][11][12] The 43,000 soldiers born in western Poland, then under Nazi control, were transferred to the Germans; in turn, the Soviets received 13,575 Polish prisoners from the Germans. [109] Some Russian officials argued it was "a genocide comparable to Katyn". [25] The Soviet leadership, and Stalin in particular, viewed the Polish prisoners as a "problem" as they might resist being under Soviet rule. It has also been alleged that the choice made in 1969 for the location of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic war memorial at the former Belarusian village named Khatyn, the site of the 1943 Khatyn massacre, was made to cause confusion with Katyn. The USSR claimed the Nazis had killed the victims, and it continued to deny responsibility for the massacres until 1990, when it officially acknowledged and condemned the killings by the NKVD, as well as the subsequent cover-up by the Soviet government. The government of Nazi Germany announced the discovery of mass graves in the Katyn Forest in April 1943. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Katyn-Massacre, History Learning Site - The Katyn Wood Massacre. The fate of the 22,000 Poles killed in the Katyn massacre went undiscovered until 1943 when Nazi troops found the mass grave in the forest. We sent neutral journalists and Polish intellectuals to the spot where they were found. The Katyn Forest MassacreUnravelling One of the Many Secrets of the Second World War 3. Corrections? [22] Earle was reassigned and spent the rest of the war in American Samoa. The Katyn massacre is the name of a series of killings by the Soviet army during World War II.Members of the NKVD killed about 22,000 Polish prisoners of war.In a forest near Katyn, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) from Smolensk, most of the prisoners killed were officers.The Katyn massacre happened in May 1940. The final report of the Select Committee Investigating the Katyn Forest Massacre hereby incorporates the recommendations contained in the interim report, filed on July 2, 1952 (H. Rept. [29] 395 prisoners were spared from the slaughter,[1] among them Stanisław Swianiewicz and Józef Czapski. [74] It was not the purpose of the court to determine whether Germany or the Soviet Union was responsible for the crime, but rather to attribute the crime to at least one of the defendants, which the court was unable to do. [55] Some regarded the inclusion of Melby and Harriman as a Soviet attempt to lend official weight to their propaganda. [112] Before the visit, the 2007 film Katyń was shown on Russian state television for the first time. [103] On 6 December 2010, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev expressed commitment to uncovering the whole truth about the massacre, stating "Russia has recently taken a number of unprecedented steps towards clearing up the legacy of the past. The Soviet government refused these demands, and on April 25, 1943, the Soviets broke diplomatic relations with the Polish government in London. The declared admissible two complaints from relatives of the massacre victims against Russia regarding adequacy of the official investigation. New Revelations on the Katyn Forest Massacre: Roosevelt Knew. [4], On 1 September 1939, the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany began. [22][54] They destroyed a cemetery the Germans had permitted the Polish Red Cross to build and removed other evidence. The first book in English, titled \"The Katyn Wood Murders\", was published by Polish émigré Józef Mackiewicz in 1951 in New York. Collectively, these murders are known as the Katyn Forest Massacre. Stalin accused the Sikorski…. [1] The Polish Army officer class was representative of the multi-ethnic Polish state; the murdered included ethnic Poles, Polish Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Polish Jews including the Chief Rabbi of the Polish Army, Baruch Steinberg.[2]. Medvedev and Komorowski agreed the two states should continue to try to reveal the truth about the tragedy. The massacre is of note for a number of reasons, but primarily due to the struggle over the attribution of culpability for several decades afterwards. [123], Many monuments and memorials that commemorate the massacre have been erected worldwide. In November 2010 the State Duma (the lower house of the Russian Federal Assembly) officially declared that Joseph Stalin and other Soviet leaders were responsible for ordering the execution of the Polish officers at Katyn. Cienciala and Materski note the commission had no choice but to issue findings in line with the Merkulov-Kruglov report, and Burdenko was likely aware of the cover-up. [26] The head of the NKVD Administration for Affairs of Prisoners of War and Internees, Pyotr Soprunenko [ru], was involved in "selections" of Polish officers to be executed at Katyn and elsewhere. In 1941, the Polish government-in-exile had agreed to join up with the Soviet Union to fight together against the Nazis, at which point the Poles expected their military officers who they believed were simply imprisoned at Katyn to be released. The investigation was closed on the grounds the perpetrators were dead, and since the Russian government would not classify the dead as victims of the Great Purge, formal posthumous rehabilitation was deemed inapplicable. The acting Polish president said Russia's move might lay a good foundation for improving bilateral relations. [27], During Kwaśniewski's visit to Russia in September 2004, Russian officials announced they were willing to transfer all the information on the Katyn massacre to the Polish authorities as soon as it became declassified. An examination of the Soviet slaughter of thousands of Polish officers and citizens in the Katyn forest … Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}54°46′20″N 31°47′24″E / 54.77222°N 31.79000°E / 54.77222; 31.79000. In the … I gave instructions to make the widest possible use of the propaganda material. The Polish government-in-exile in London requested that the International Committee of the Red Cross examine the graves and also asked the Soviet government to provide official reports on the fates of the remaining missing prisoners. They totalled 15,570 men. [citation needed], On 4 February 2010, the Prime Minister of Russia, Vladimir Putin, invited his Polish counterpart, Donald Tusk, to attend a Katyn memorial service in April. It concluded the Poles had been killed by the Soviet NKVD[22] and recommended the Soviets be tried before the International Court of Justice. [67] Washington kept the information secret, presumably to appease Stalin and not distract from the war against the Nazis. I am convinced of this by the very fact that I was able to travel here. Wiktor Dziurzyński.JPG 86 × 101; 3 KB. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Alderman, S. S., "Negotiating the Nuremberg Trial Agreements, 1945", in Raymond Dennett and Joseph E. Johnson, edd., CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939–1946), territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union, Main Administration for Affairs of Prisoners of War and Internees, Administration for Affairs of Prisoners of War and Internees, Extraordinary State Commission for ascertaining and investigating crimes perpetrated by the German-Fascist invaders, National Archives and Records Administration, Censorship in the Polish People's Republic, camps for Russian prisoners and internees in Poland (1919–24), Polish prisoners and internees in Soviet Russia, Communist Party of the Russian Federation, Learn how and when to remove this template message, World War II Behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis and the West, "Decision to commence investigation into Katyn Massacre", "A State against Its People: Violence, Repression and Terror in the Soviet Union", "Ustawa z dnia 9 kwietnia 1938 r. o powszechnym obowiązku wojskowym (Act of 9 April 1938, on Compulsory Military Duty)", "The grave unknown elsewhere or any time before ... Katyń – Kharkiv – Mednoe", "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field", "ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ: Заключение комиссии экспертов Главной военной прокуратуры по уголовному делу № 159 о расстреле польских военнопленных из Козельского, Осташковского и Старобельского спецлагерей НКВД в апреле—мае 1940 г", "Katyn massacre: how the truth prevailed", "Odkryto grzebień z nazwiskami Polaków pochowanych w Bykowni", "Forgotten document found hidden in Minsk archive could reveal secrets of 'Belarusian List' – an NKVD death list of nearly 4,000 murdered Poles", "Jedyna kobieta — ofiara Katynia (The only woman victim of Katyn)", "Special Edition of Kombatant Bulletin on the occasion of the Year of General Sikorski. It is central to the plot in the W.E.B. [44] Joseph Goebbels saw this discovery as an excellent tool to drive a wedge between Poland, the Western Allies, and the Soviet Union, and reinforcement for the Nazi propaganda line about the horrors of Bolshevism, and American and British subservience to it. According to Tokarev, the shooting started in the evening and ended at dawn. [115] The catastrophe has also had major echoes in the international and particularly the Russian press, prompting a rebroadcast of Katyń on Russian television. Powazki Cemetery. No comment by Roosevelt on the O'Malley report has been found. But both German and Red Cross investigations of the Katyn corpses then produced firm physical evidence that the massacre took place in early 1940, at a time when the area was still under Soviet control. [22] Earle concluded the massacre was committed by the Soviet Union. In 1944, Roosevelt assigned his special emissary to the Balkans, Navy Lieutenant Commander George Earle, to produce a report on Katyn. Ivan Serov reported to Lavrentiy Beria on 3 December that "in all, 1,057 former officers of the Polish Army had been arrested". Revolution999. [24] The reason for the massacre, according to the historian Gerhard Weinberg, was that Stalin wanted to deprive a potential future Polish military of a large portion of its talent. [32] The executioners used German weapons rather than the standard Soviet revolvers, as the latter were said to offer too much recoil, which made shooting painful after the first dozen executions. Members of the Duma from the Communist Party denied the Soviet Union had been to blame for the Katyn massacre and voted against the declaration. ), Aleksander Kowalewski (ret. "[95], In late 2007 and early 2008, several Russian newspapers, including Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Komsomolskaya Pravda, and Nezavisimaya Gazeta, printed stories that implicated the Nazis in the crime, spurring concern this was done with the tacit approval of the Kremlin. [55] Harriman's report reached the same conclusion and after the war both were asked to explain why their conclusions seemed to be at odds with their findings, with the suspicion the conclusions were what the State Department wanted to hear. However, the Jersey City monument commemorating the 1940 Katyn massacre of 22,000 Polish POW officers held by the Soviet Army after its 1939 invasion of Poland, is being chall... by Dr. Lucja Cannon   Protecting historical landmarks symbolizing freedom and horrors of genocide should be above reproach. [22][23] According to NKVD reports, if a prisoner could not be induced to adopt a pro-Soviet attitude, he was declared a "hardened and uncompromising enemy of Soviet authority". Information about the photos used in this site. [22] In 1950, Van Vliet recreated his wartime report. In 1951 and 1952, with the Korean War as a background, a U.S. Congressional investigation chaired by Rep. Ray J. Madden and known as the Madden Committee investigated the Katyn massacre. [16] According to Tadeusz Piotrowski, "during the war and after 1944, 570,387 Polish citizens had been subjected to some form of Soviet political repression". [40][41][better source needed] Józef Czapski investigated the fate of Polish officers between 1941 and 1942. [1], In 2008, the Polish Foreign Ministry asked the government of Russia about alleged footage of the massacre filmed by the NKVD during the killings, something the Russians have denied exists. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [66] However, the question of responsibility remained controversial in the West as well as behind the Iron Curtain. [71], At the London conference that drew up the indictments of German war crimes before the Nuremberg trials, the Soviet negotiators put forward the allegation, "In September 1941, 925 Polish officers who were prisoners of war were killed in the Katyn Forest near Smolensk". Russia revives a vicious lie", "Wyrok Trybunału w Strasburgu ws. [f] According to estimates by the Institute of National Remembrance (IPN), roughly 320,000 Polish citizens were deported to the Soviet Union (this figure is questioned by some other historians, who hold to older estimates of about 700,000–1,000,000). [108][110] The fate of Polish prisoners and internees in Soviet Russia remains poorly researched. His confession was full of absurdities, and thus he was not used as a Soviet prosecution witness during the Nuremberg trials. Generals: [ 28 ] Leon Billewicz ( ret released the top-secret documents from War! His remarks were given extensive coverage on Soviet television Tusk and Putin together the... Of 1940. 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