We review the electrical characteristics of 16 widely studied geometries of photovoltaic materials with efficiencies of 10 to 29%. The, A company that has a well stablished c-Si recycling process, company started recycling in 2003 with a pilot plant using a thermal process. all the stages, from the collection of the PV modules to the end of the recycling process. Energy & Environmental Science. ... 20,21) In ordinary state, these toxic substances are not released out but when there is a defect on the system due to improper handling or installation or if there is a crack in the system, rain can penetrate inside the systems and heavy metals may be leached out. (1,731 GW), India (600 GW), the United States (US) (600 GW), Japan (350 GW) and Germany (110 GW). We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. After that process, the glass is separated again. (5.5‑6 million tonnes) almost matching the mass contained in new installations (6.7 million tonnes). Emphasis is also laid upon the enhancement of material recovery rate and discovering environmentally amiable substance for recycling. penetration targets: Accounting for external costs. Two well-known indicators are proposed for a reference 2000 tons plant: net present value (NPV) and discounted payback period (DPBT). Summary of loser Chemie recycling process for PV modules (pilot project). Cumulative photovoltaic (PV) power installed in 2016 was equal to 305 GW. Thin-films represent less than 10% of the total PV industry [3]. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. Marina Monteiro Lunardi, Juan Pablo Alvarez-Gaitan, José I. Bilbao and Richard Corkish (February 15th 2018). climate change. More efficient than solvent dissolution process, Other separation processes required for full removal of EVA, Separate 80% of wafers and almost 100% of the glass sheets, Cost-effective industrial recycling process, Slightly worse texturisation (damage to cell surface), Complete removal of EVA and metal coating on the wafer, It can cause cell defects due to inorganic acid, Other separation processes required for full EVA removal, Cell defects and degradation due to high temperature. materials allows them to be sent to specific recycling processes associated with each material. Transport is also relevant for several impact categories, ranging from a minimum of about 10% (for the freshwater eutrophication) up to 80% (for the Abiotic Depletion Potential – minerals). To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Even with the difficulty of recovering rare, toxic and valuable materials from solar modules, the recycling process has a remarkable environmental advantage [28]. Additionally, *Address all correspondence to: r.corkish@unsw, Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney. PDF | On Jul 11, 2018, Marina Monteiro Lunardi and others published A Review of Recycling Processes for Photovoltaic Modules | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Third, following an ecodesign framework, a bi-objective (Energy production versus Energy Payback time) optimization approach for the design of PVGCS encompassing the recycling stage has been developed to assess the formulated scenarios. Lastly for recycling processes aiming to generate new materials, the aim is to keep the materials intact for reuse or direct recycling, recovering the frame, glass, tabbing and solar cells without breakages and in good condition. CdTe is the most widely used thin-film technology, significant amounts of cadmium (Cd), an element, environmental problem that has been studied worldwide [37, 38]. These countries treat PV waste under a general regulatory framework for hazardous and non-hazardous solid waste or WEEE. Submitted: November 9th 2017 Reviewed: January 25th 2018 Published: February 15th 2018. Springer; 2014. pp. Besides, this review believes the basics of PV panel installation, management and recycling process which could recommend upcoming guidance for the public policymakers. Licensee IntechOpen. By 2050, the recoverable value could cumulatively exceed USD 15 billion, equivalent to 2 billion panels, or 630 GW. The article provides transparent and disaggregated information on the end-of-life stage of silicon PV panel, which could be useful for other LCA practitioners for future assessment of PV technologies. to recycling. Renewable. This process recovers 90% of the glass for use in new, products and 95% of the semiconductor materials for use in new, Also, for recycling CdTe modules, ANTEC Solar GmbH designed a pilot plant with a similar. How? The separation of the materials allows them to be sent to specific recycling processes associated with each material. CdTe, CIGS and a-Si are the main technologies for thin-film PV modules [36]. The summary of this process is shown in Figure 6. Lifecycle impacts of photovoltaic (PV) plants have been largely explored in several studies. in time to meet the expected surge in panel waste. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to analyze the leachates from PSCs to determine the concentrations of major component species. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. Because of that, recycling solar modules is a relatively complex task, since these materials need to be separated. It starts with a physical fragmentation of the modules. Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2012 38th IEEE; 2012, Proceedings of the EcoDesign 2013 International Symposium; 2013 4, improvements in industrial PV module recycling. In their research, they focused on innovative process called FRELP for recycling of Si PV module. The study highlights that the impacts are concentrated on the incineration of the panel׳s encapsulation layers, followed by the treatments to recover silicon metal, silver, copper, aluminium. 2010; and glass from waste photovoltaic modules. However, the prediction for 2050 is, that the recoverable value could cumulatively exceed 15 billion US dollars (equivalent to 2, billion modules, or 630 GW) [7]. Hence, the ideal outcome can only be achieved with a combination of thermal, chemical or metallurgical steps [29, 61]. This company started recycling in 2003 with a pilot plant using a thermal process. In addition to the commercially available LCA tools, prospective suggestions based on the latest digital technologies are made. It’s clear that sustainable development of the PV industry should be supported by regulatory frameworks and institutions across the globe, which is not the case at the moment. Several studies have analyzed the impacts of recycling, environment. 1st, Current feasible processes. This study confirms that the end-of-life management of PV modules must be thoroughly studied not only to determine the feasibility of the process but also to assess the environmental and economic benefits. The better knowledge of these technologies and, growth on the waste amounts that could generate profitable outcomes has supported the, Solar, Pilkington, Sharp Solar, and Siemens Solar) are investing in the research on solar, avoidance of damage to the PV cells and module materials, economic feasibility, recovery rate of materials that have some monetary, can be reused in the supply chain. Since February 2014, the collection, transport and recycling of PV modules that reached their EoL is regulated in every EU country [8]. The recycling process for Si or CIS is based, on pyrolysis of the polymers in a furnace. Studies show that the impurity levels are an important issue during the recycling processes. the predominant technology (90% of the market) is crystalline silicon (c-Si). Information about countries outside the IEA-PVPS network is collected through the industry network, industrial associations, IRENA and REN21. Because of that, there should be a, continuous focus on scientific evidences on the potential impacts and, Furthermore, recycling processes for all the different PV technologies, oped. closed-loop use of metals. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined, and new entries since January 2016 are reviewed. The large-scale recycling of thin-film PV modules is well advanced and, as well as the Si solar cells, thin-film PV modules are currently processed and recycled using a combination of mechanical and chemical treatments to achieve meaningful outcomes. This work assesses the environmental benefits of including the recycling strategies for PV modules at the earlier design stage of PV grid-connected systems (PVGCS) considering simultaneously techno-economic and environmental criteria. © 2018 The Author(s). EUPVSEC 2013, Paris; 2013, process. The next step is to separate the glass from the. With a help of the United Nations and their initiatives, namely Agenda 21 and Sustainable Development Goals, humanity could delay and prevent the adverse consequences. Today, the take-back of modules is organized via a “bring-in” system [44]. Only about 10% of PV modules are recycled worldwide. This review presents a summary of possible PV recycling processes for solar modules, including c-Si and thin-film technologies as well as an overview of the global legislation. However, these processes are complex and are currently just at, Even with the difficulty of recovering rare, toxic and, the recycling process has a remarkable environmental advantage [28]. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. The mod-, ules are made to minimize the amount of moisture that can come in contact with the solar cells, and their contacts while keeping manufacturing costs down. At the end of 2050 China is still forecast to have accumulated the greatest amount HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. Within the global circular economy: A special case of Turkey towards energy transition - Volume 7 - Selma Erat, Azime Telli. Other separation processes required for encapsulant, Removal of semiconductor layers without chemicals, Further chemical or mechanical treatments needed, High losses of valuables during rinsing and sieving process. End-of-life (EoL) management of waste PV modules requires alternative strategies than landfill, and recycling is a valid option. The currently dominant tech-, nologies are cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and amor-, Thin-film solar cells were developed with the aim of providing low, tries, using relatively small material quantities. Japan; 2015, and Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and T, McMeekin SG, et al. lead, cadmium, and selenium), recover rare materials (e.g. As a result of the increase in the global market for PV energy, the volume of modules that reach the end of their life will grow at the same rate in the near future. Purpose MML and RC acknowledge the support of the Australian Government through the Australian, Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA). As a, result of the increase, the volume of modules that reach the end of their life will grow at, the same rate in the near future. Waste and, silicon photovoltaic modules. During this process, the plastic components, glass and some metals are sent to other companies for recycling and the solar, turned into wafers again. The company is developing a process of, from damaged solar modules. mentioned that recycling of silicon PV modules can be carried out by physical/chemical treatment or combination of both. Licensee IntechOpen. Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, s Republic of China. Since it is expected that more than 50 000 t of PV modules will be worn out in 2015, the recycling approach has received significant attention in the last few years. Also, projections of PV module material streams are also highlighted. Over the past few decades, humanity has faced a growing number of unpredictable natural disasters. In contrast, the data quality of CdTe PV module recycling is considered very good. FirstSolar [21] has, an established recycling process for CdTe, but for other thin films there are still room for, improvements. Installations must be properly dismantled and any waste treated and disposed at the moment pieces. Solar GmbH recycling process dominate the current market share of PV residues in waste legislation in some countries is to... Valu-, able metals like silver and copper are also discussed compete with that of devices fabricated from recycled can. 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